The Chair of the department and the Dean are spooked by the national media attention, and attempt to strongarm Shiv to revise the lesson and sign the apology. Engagement with globalization has permeated quite broadly into Indian fiction since the early s, and several of the novels described could very well also be understood with reference to globalization as well The White Tiger , for instance, is deeply interested in the topic.
But while the theme is now commonplace, the conceptual territory entailed is not necessarily so simple. Some writers have opted to explore the impact of globalization via an aesthetic of acceleration and cultural simultaneity: everything is changing and all establishments and traditions are being overturned at the root.
Against a presentist, deterritorialized globalism, since a number of Indian novelists have been exploring an aesthetic that melds the theme of globalization with a deep attention to place, and the ways in which history—ancient and modern—continues to exert itself in the contemporary moment.
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Here, hybridity is occurring, but so are strong forces of reaction, nationalist assertion, and cultural retrenchment. Rather than breathlessly celebrating globalization as an era when everyone and everything comes together, this new set of novels attempts to find a way out of the impasses and disjunctions that continue to keep us apart. The primary characters are a group of various displaced Indians from other parts of India who have relocated to this area, many of them with global connections in their pasts, and locals who sometimes view the outsiders with suspicion.
Sai, the primary protagonist, has been educated for years in Europe before returning to India to live with her grandfather, Judge Jemubhai Patel. As the various competing constituencies in the plot come together, Desai seems to be making a point that even in an era of globalization local identities and the personal histories that go with them remain paramount.
It is a method he initiated in a highly influential nonfiction work, In an Antique Land , and then expanded in his novel The Glass Palace. In the s, he has produced some of his most accomplished writing in this vein with The Hungry Tide and the Ibis Trilogy. The Glass Palace is virtually an epic of southeast Asia—it simultaneously tells the story of: the Indian National Army during the Second World War; the advent of modernity in Burma, including especially the role of the rubber and teak trades in British colonialism; and the plight of Indian migrant workers in places such as Malaysia at a time of widespread displacement and general chaos.
Through juxtaposition, Ghosh suggests a number of compelling ties between Indian Bengal and the rest of Southeast Asia. The Hungry Tide , in contrast, is geographically a bit narrower—the main action of the story is limited to the Sunderban islands in the Bay of Bengal, and perhaps by extension Bengal itself. The other conceptual question is how humans share a complex and dangerous ecosystem with animals here dolphins and tigers.
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The environmental theme in The Hungry Tide serves as an important conceptual bridge between the global and local. The Irawaddy dolphins are being studied by Piyali Roy, a marine biologist of Bengali descent who discovers some strange behavioral quirks among dolphins in a tide pool while visiting the islands on a grant. The Bay of Bengal is also one of the only habitats where Bengal tigers continue to live in the wild.
They are zealously protected by various international environmental groups who apply economic pressure on the Indian and Bangladeshi governments to maintain the tiger habitats by military force. But in the name of a global priority—namely, tiger preservation—local human lives are threatened, as the tigers routinely maul and often kill islanders. Though there are the obvious modern devices that might be used to protect the islanders, the state allows local deaths to continue in the interest of a highly sought—even commodified—global environmental reputation.
In the Sunderbans, Ghosh argues, human lives are valued lower than those of tigers as global economic forces and international institutions make local suffering invisible. Alongside the more social and political critique of borders and national identity that permeates The Hungry Tide , the islands themselves are in a flood plain, and their precarious status is a figure for the possible harms that could follow from climate change.
In the novel, the land itself is inconstant—subject to sometimes radical alterations as a result of late summer storms.
Whole islands are washed away by the cyclones that sweep in with huge tidal surges; thousands of human beings and animals routinely die in these storms, which may get worse as climate change continues to accelerate. Global interests impinge on life in the Sunderbans in ways that are sometimes quite direct the NGO-driven ban on killing tigers and sometimes unthinkably vast and abstract.
Interestingly, the Anglo-Indians who employ this hybridized mode of speech do so deliberately—choosing it over committing fully to Indian languages. Many of the best critics of South Asian literature are novelists themselves. The best might well be Salman Rushdie; his Imaginary Homelands laid much of the conceptual groundwork for the scholarship and analysis that has followed. While by and large the best sources to consult with respect to Indian literature are usually the serious literary reviews The New Yorker , New York Review of Books , London Review of Books , some excellent academic scholarship has appeared in recent years.
The Abjection and Allure of Slums. Anjaria, Ulka. A History of the Indian Novel in English. Find this resource:. Brians, Paul. Modern South Asian Literature in English.
Westport, CT: Greenwood, Brouillette, Sarah. Literature and the Creative Economy. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, Chakravorty, Mrinalini. New York: Columbia University Press, Chaudhari, Amit. New York: Peter Lang, Chandra, Vikram.
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February 1, Cooppan, Vilashini. Dharwadker, Vinay. New York: Routledge, Kumar, Amitava, ed. World Bank Literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Kumar, Priya. Her Parva series, which is still a work in progress, with two parts having been published, turned out to be equally compelling and won critical acclaim. The two books, Adi Parva: Churning of the Ocean and Sauptik: Blood and Flowers , have unique narrators — Ganga and Ashwatthama, respectively — to poignantly tell the story of the mythic ages.
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Patil is a multidisciplinary artist, and her quest to tell a deeper, more rounded story goes beyond the verbal and visual. Her short podcasts explain the literary and artistic influences on her work, so the reader can accompany her not only through the narrative but also the creative process. The author especially revels in gritty scenes of war, and makes humans of heroes, thus placing the lofty epic on a more human plane. He dissects the nature of masculinity on the operating table of his novels.
However, it is the ambitious octet that Iyengar speaks of that is something to watch out for.fr.kovalev.com.ua/scripts/map.php
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The Syamantaka can finally rid him of his curse and allow him to die. It can also rid him of Krishna, who is present as a voice in his head till the end of time — or till Ashwatthama ends his own life. The first book of what one hopes will be a series was called Palace of Assassins: The Rise of Ashwatthama Given its scope and complexity, the Mahabharata naturally offers an irresistible temptation to many writers operating in the domain of mythological fiction.
However, others working in this genre are getting increasingly experimental and seeking out different sources from Indian mythology to base their stories on. Nath, for example, uses the character of King Vikramaditya remember Vikram-Betal? Thomas R. Google Scholar.
For a broader consideration of Victorian imperialism, see Colin G. Eldridge ed.
Nancy L. CrossRef Google Scholar. All references are to this edition. See J. Edward M.